Sunday, January 15, 2006


North and North west Part 5

Kushanas: Chineses accounts mentions that Yueh-Chi were a nomadic tribe settled in North-western border of China

Struggle of Kushanas: Kushanas went in conflict with the neighbouring tribe of Hiung-nu and were defeated. They were force to move out of their land and could not move towards east because of China wall.Hence they move towards South and West. While moving west, they came in conflict with Wu-sun whom they defeated easily. It's here they were divided in to two groups little Yueh-chi and Great Yue-chi. The little Yue-chi group moved to Tibet and the great Yueh-chi group moved to India.
Then Yue-Chi met Sakas, who they displaced and settled down in the place of Sakas.It's here they gave up their nomadic life and adopted agriculture and settled way of life.

Perhaps in this area they were divided in to five branches.

Prominent kings of Kushanas:

Kadphises I: Kadphises I was the first to unite all the five branches and established his rule over Afghanistan.He is also called Dharmathida or Sachadharmathida, which is take to suggest that he was a Buddhist.

Kadphises II: Kadphises II was the succesor of Kadphises I and extended the Kushana territory upto Punjab and perhaps even in the Ganga-Yamuna Doab.He issued gold and copper coins and was devotee of Lord Siva. On some of his coins, Siva holding a trident and a bull are shown.

Kanishka: (78 -101A.D)Kadphises II was succeded by Kanishka and was one of the greatest ruler of Kushana empire. He ascended to throne about 78A.D.

Kanishka's empire extended from Khotan in the north-west to Benares in the east and Kashmir in the south to Saurastra and Malwa in the south. The capital of this empire was Purushapur(modern Peshawar). Coins have been found in all the above area.

Relegion and Scholars: Kanishka was the follower of Buddihism and the fourth Buddhist council held during his reign. Kanishka's court was adorned by the presence of scholars like Parsva, Vasumitra,Ashvaghosa,Charaka and Nagarjuna. During his reign Taxila and Mathura emerged as a great centre for art and culture.

After Kushana came Vashiska,Huvishka, Vasudeva and others. The last name suggests the complete Indiansisation of Kushanas. Kushanas continued to rule upto fourth century A.D, over small principalities, independently under some sovereign rulers.

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